Andrea Bargnani added 25 points and eight rebounds for the Raptors, who had lost their previous 11 games at Quicken Loans Arena. Leandro Barbosa tallied 22 points off the bench.
Julian Wright finished with 15 points and nine boards for Toronto, which snapped a three-game skid. DeMar DeRozan and Amir Johnson chipped in with 13 and 12 points, respectively.
"Today, everybody did something very important," Bargnani said. "Everybody did something huge in the game. It was a game that we really needed."
Antawn Jamison made a season-high five three-pointers en route to 32 points for the Cavaliers, who have lost eight in a row to fall to 8-27 on the year. Christian Eyenga and Ramon Sessions each donated 16 points.
Cleveland also lost guard Daniel Gibson to a left ankle sprain. He had 13 points before exiting.
The Cavaliers made 14-of-21 shots (66.7 percent) over the first 12 minutes to grab a 38-26 lead.
But it was Toronto that was hot from the field in the second quarter, making 15-of-23 shots (65.2 percent). The Raptors took a 66-63 edge into the locker room.
Holding a 75-74 lead near the midway mark of the third, the Raptors put together a 12-3 run to create some distance. Barbosa bookended the surge with a jumper and three-pointer for an 87-77 margin.
Jamison's runner with 3.3 seconds left cut the gap to 90-84 heading to the fourth.
Toronto started the fourth on a 10-3 flurry, which DeRozan capped with four straight points for a 100-87 lead.
DeRozan scored five straight points moments later to make it a 105-90 contest with 7:48 to play.
Cleveland never got closer than 10 the rest of the way.
"Every time I think we're taking a step forward, we take two steps back, especially on the defensive end," Cavs head coach Byron Scott said. "We just have to figure out a way, every single night, to have that type of effort that I know we're capable of."
Toronto defeated Cleveland, 101-81, back on October 29 this season at Air Canada Centre, snapping a three-game losing streak in the series...The Cavs have lost five in a row at home to fall to 5-12 at the Q this season...The Raptors improved to 5-13 away from home this season...Toronto guard Sonny Weems (back spasms) missed the game...The Raptors shot 56.8 percent from the field, while the Cavaliers made 50.7 percent of their shots...Cleveland went 27-of-33 from the foul line.